Martyrs' Square is located in the "Chiaia" Disterect, near the waterfront. It was built in the seventeenth century, during the expansion of the city to the west, beyond the walls, by Luigi Catalani and then embellished by Enrico Alvino, the architect of Palazzo Nunziante. It's dominated by the Neapolitans war memorial: an obelisk of the Bourbon period, on top of which there is a statue of Emanuele Caggiano, symbol of the "virtues of the martyrs." At the base of column there are four lions, one for each historical period: the "Dying Lion", by Antonio Busciolano, is dedicated to the fallen of the Neapolitan Republic of 1799; the "Pierced Lion" by Stanislaus List, for the fallen Carbonari of 1820; the "Lying Lion", with the statute of 1848 under the paw and the "Standing Lion" dedicated to the partisans of 1860. Around the obelisk there are Partanna Palace and Calabritto Palace, renovated by Luigi Vanvitelli in the second half of the eighteenth century.