The Reserve has a wavy curved morphology that is always kept within moderate limits. The geological plateau is made up of metamorphosed archaic rocks dating back to the middle lava and formed by gneiss and micasa grenades. The average annual rainfall is around 1,300 mm, the average annual temperature is about 10° C, the climate is typically Mediterranean with autumn/winter rains and higher temperatures in the summer months.
Flora and vegetation: the present forest populations vary with the altitude of evergreen oaks, oak trees, larch pinewoods, and beech trees with sporadic white spruces. Secondary species are Neapolitan and black alder, opal and mountain maple, chestnut, and trembling poplar. As part of the activity of protecting biodiversity, the particular presence of Calabrian larva pine "cultivar Vutullo" with more frequent stems and cylindrical trunks is to be highlighted. Among the shrubs are hawthorn, canine rose, pungitope, holly, elder and other smaller species.
Fauna: among the mammals the most important species is certainly Canis lupus (wolf); until a few years ago in danger of extinction; today the wolf population seems to be increasing.