For cultivation and study of medicinal plants, the Botanical Garden was established in 1758 by the will of the Duke Francesco III d'Este, who reserved the purpose part of the Ducal Garden. In 1772, with the Great University Reform wanted by the duke, the Botanical Garden came under the jurisdiction of the University. Over a thousand species kept (herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees), including 200 local and exotic wood species of ancient and recent introduction, it represents a broad overview of biodiversity in an area of about one hectare and 300 square meters. As many other botanical gardens of ancient tradition, even this one is characterized by a series of trails, where large woody plants are interspersed with species in pots along the sidewalks, reflecting the different forms that the collector has taken over time. A collection of herbaceous plants and shrubs, the main source of supply of seeds for trade, has a place in the "System", structured in flower beds. In the area of the Garden called the "Montagnola" are hosted trees and shrubs, exotic and homegrown, of considerable botanical interest. In "educational moat" take root rural biotopes now threatened with extinction, and are gradually introduced hygrophile species of local interest. The Ducal Greenhouses", designed to be planted specimens of exotic origin, constitute the most significant building complex of the Botanical Garden, with species such as the carnivorous, the orchids and ferns.