The Library was established by the bequest of Luciano Benincasa who, in 1669, made accessible to the public his private collection. In 1749, Eleonora Vincenzi donates the Library to the Municipality of Ancona, that moved from the palace of the Benincasa family to the Palace of the Elders. In 1911 it is united to the Historical Archive of the City and, in 1925, again moved. At the end of the Second World War, the City bought Mengoni-Ferretti Palace (current site) and, in 1950, opens the Library. At 2007, it owned about 145.000 prints. Among the older works, 62 incunabula of the fifteenth and 2600 sixteenth century books. It also includes 241 music manuscripts. Very important the part devoted to the history of the municipal and regional level.