Monticiano is a town and comune on the right bank of the Val di Merse, Tuscany, Italy, administratively part of the Province of Siena. It has 1,412 inhabitants as of 31 December 2004. The town is situated on the Colline Metallifere.One of its frazioni, Bagni di Petriolo, is popular for its thermal waters.HistoryFirst historical mentions of the "Castle of Monticiano" dates from 1171, when it was under the suzerainty of the bishop of Volterra. During the Medieval period the forests represented an incredibly important resource. Not only did they provide wood but also several important food supplies such as wild game and chestnuts. A system of agriculture quickly grew up around Monticiano, the principal product cultivated being wheat. In 1266, due to its citizens' participation to the Ghibelline defeat at Benevento, it was occupied by the Sienese troops. The Sienese destroyed the castle walls. In 1554 it became part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. From 1629 to 1749 it was a fief of the Pannocchieschi family.In 1860, its 723 inhabitants unanimously agreed to join the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, partisans from the Siena zone started their first organizational operations in Monticiano, where a resistance brigade, named after Spartaco Lavagnini, also operated. The night time battle between the partisans and the Germans between the 3rd and 4th of June 1944 which took place in the town’s central piazza is particularly remembered.PeopleMonticiano is the birthplace of controversial football director Luciano Moggi.